References and Resources

References
  1. Kuhn, C.M., 2002. Anabolic steroids. Recent progress in hormone research, 57, pp.411-434.
  2. Holt, R.I.G. and Sönksen, P.H. (2008), Growth hormone, IGF‐I and insulin and their abuse in sport. British Journal of Pharmacology, 154: 542-556. doi:1038/bjp.2008.99
  3. Rhoden, E., Morgentaler, A. Treatment of testosterone-induced gynecomastia with the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole. Int J Impot Res 16, 95–97 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3901154
  4. de Ronde, W., de Jong, F.H. Aromatase inhibitors in men: effects and therapeutic options. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 9, 93 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-9-93
  5. Br J Cancer. 2011 Mar 29; 104(7): 1059–1066.
  6. Hollingsworth et al. Quantitative and qualitative effects of l-triiodothyronine in massive obesity. Metabolism. Volume 19, Issue 11, November 1970, Pages 934-945
  7. Henry A. Spiller MS, DABAT, FAACT, Kyla J. James PharmD, Steven Scholzen BS & Douglas J. Borys PharmD, DABAT (2013) A Descriptive Study of Adverse Events from Clenbuterol Misuse and Abuse for Weight Loss and Bodybuilding, Substance Abuse, 34:3, 306-312, DOI: 1080/08897077.2013.772083
  8. Reeds, P., Hay, S., Dorwood, P., & Palmer, R. (1986). Stimulation of muscle growth by clenbuterol: Lack of effect on muscle protein biosynthesis. British Journal of Nutrition, 56(1), 249-258. doi:10.1079/BJN19860104
  9. Sinha et al. Beyond the androgen receptor: the role of growth hormone secretagogues in the modern management of body composition in hypogonadal males. Transl Androl Urol. 2020 Mar; 9(Suppl 2): S149–S159.
  10. Sigalos & Pastuszak, The Safety and Efficacy of Growth Hormone Secretagogues Sex Med Rev. 2018 Jan; 6(1): 45–53.
  11. Dimitriadis, G. Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 93(1), Aug 2011, S52-S59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8227(11)70014-6
  12. Sőnksen, P.. “Insulin, growth hormone and sport.” The Journal of endocrinology 170 1 (2001): 13-25 . DOI: 10.1677/joe.0.1700013
  13. KALANTAR-ZADEH, K. History of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents, the Development of Biosimilars, and the Future of Anemia Treatment in Nephrology. American Journal of Nephrology, 3, 45, n. 1421-9670 (Electronic), p. 235-247, 2017.
  14. NAKAYAMA, K.; KATAOKA, N. Regulation of Gene Expression under Hypoxic Conditions. International journal of molecular sciences, 20, n. 13, p. 3278, 2019.
  15. HANDELSMAN, D. J. Performance Enhancing Hormone Doping in Sport. BTI - Endotext. Endotext, 2020.
  16. ELLIOTT, S. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport. British journal of pharmacology, 154, n. 3, p. 529-541, 2008.
  17. THEVIS, M.; SIGMUND G FAU - GEYER, H.; GEYER H FAU - SCHÄNZER, W.; SCHÄNZER, W. Stimulants and doping in sport. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 1, 39, n. 1558-4410 (Electronic), 2010.
  18. AVOIS, L.; ROBINSON, N.; SAUDAN, C.; BAUME, N. et al. Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice. British journal of sports medicine, 40 Suppl 1, n. Suppl 1, p. i16-i20, 2006.
  19. Winter et al. The Hormonal Response to HCG Stimulation in Male Children and Adolescents The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 34, Issue 2, 1 February 1972, Pages 348–353
  20. Gordon, et al. An Evaluation of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) Therapy in Boys With Delayed Puberty QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 74, Issue 3, March 1990, Pages 247
  21. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1998;74:45-46.
  22. Repceková D,Mikulaj, Plasma testosterone response to HCG in normal men without and after administration of anabolic drug. Endokrinologie, 01 Feb 1977, 69(1):115-118
  23. Martikainen et al. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin during transient hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism induced by androgenic/anabolic steroids in power athletes. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 25(1) July 1986 109-112
  24. Menon, Dev. Successful treatment of anabolic steroid–induced azoospermia with human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin. Fertility and Sterility. 79 (3) June 2003, Pages 1659-1661
  25. Perry HM, Wright D, Littlepage BN, Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use. British Journal of Sports Medicine 1992;26:259-261
  26. Parker et al. Treatment of gynecomastia with tamoxifen: A double-blind crossover study. Metabolism, 35 (1), Aug 1986, 705-708
  27. Yoo JJ, Lim YS, Kim MS, Lee B, Kim BY, et al. (2020) Risk of fatty liver after long-term use of tamoxifen in patients with breast cancer. PLOS ONE 15(7)
  28. Guay et al. Effect of raising endogenous testosterone levels in impotent men with secondary hypogonadism: double blind placebo-controlled trial with clomiphene citrate. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 80(12), Dec 1995
  29. Anawalt, B. Diagnosis and Management of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 104, Issue 7, July 2019, Pages 2490–2500
  30. Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs. https://www.ukad.org.uk, p. 1-31. 2020.
  31. BEGLEY, E.; MCVEIGH, J.; HOPE, V. Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs 2016 National Survey Results Survey. 2017. (ISBN: 978-1-912210-11-4 (web)).
  32. THE HOME OFFICE. Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2016/17 Crime Survey for England and Wales. The Home Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/642738/drug-misuse-2017-hosb1117.pdf. 2017.
  33. BATES, G.; MCVEIGH, J. Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs 2015 Survey Results.
  34. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders  (5th ed.). Arlington, VA; 2013.
  35. Smith AR, Hames JL, Joiner TE, Jr. Status update: maladaptive Facebook usage predicts increases in body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2013;149(1-3):235-40.
  36. Ryding FC, Kuss DJ. The use of social networking sites, body image dissatisfaction, and body dysmorphic disorder: A systematic review of psychological research. Psychology of popular media culture. 2019.
  37. Corazza O, Simonato P, Demetrovics Z, Mooney R, van de Ven K, Roman-Urrestarazu A, et al. The emergence of Exercise Addiction, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and other image-related psychopathological correlates in fitness settings: A cross sectional study. PloS one. 2019;14(4):e0213060-e.
  38. Public Health Wales. Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs: Risks and Complications 2020 [Available from: https://www.ipedinfo.co.uk/ipeds-risks-and-complications/.
  39. Klötz F, Garle M, Granath F, Thiblin I. Criminality Among Individuals Testing Positive for the Presence of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006;63(11):1274-9
  40. Thiblin I, Runeson B, Rajs J. Anabolic androgenic steroids and suicide. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1999;11(4):223-31.
  41. Zitzmann M. Testosterone, mood, behaviour and quality of life. Andrology. 2020;n/a(n/a).
  42. Archer J. Testosterone and human aggression: an evaluation of the challenge hypothesis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2006;30(3):319-45.
  43. Lisa E. et al. Anabolic androgenic steroids, antisocial personality traits, aggression and violence, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol 221, 2021,
  44. Dun, M. Commentary on Lundholm et al. (2015):What came first, the steroids or the violence? Addiction, 110, 109–110, 2014.
  45. Saugy M, Robinson N, Saudan C, Baume N, Avois L, Mangin P. Human growth hormone doping in sport. British journal of sports medicine. 2006;40 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):i35-i9.
  46. Holt RIG, Sönksen PH. Growth hormone, IGF-I and insulin and their abuse in sport. British journal of pharmacology. 2008;154(3):542-56.
  47. GANESAN, K.; RAHMAN, S.; ZITO, P. M. Anabolic Steroids. BTI - StatPearls. Disponível em: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482418/#article-17499.s4.
  48. 'Steroid abuse off-the-scale in Welsh grassroots rugby'. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news, 2015. Disponível em: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-34902105. Acesso em: 10/10/20.
  49. JOHN, M. J.; JAISON, V.; JAIN, K.; KAKKAR, N. et al. Erythropoietin use and abuse. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 16, n. 2, p. 220-227, 2012.
  50. BLOODWORTH, A.; MCNAMEE, M. Clean Olympians? Doping and anti-doping: The views of talented young British athletes. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21, n. 4, p. 276-282, 2010/07/01/ 2010.
  51. KIRBY, K.; MORAN, A.; GUERIN, S. A qualitative analysis of the experiences of elite athletes who have admitted to doping for performance enhancement. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3, n. 2, p. 205-224, 2011/07/01 2011.
  52. OZDEMIR, L.; NUR, N.; BAGCIVAN, I.; BULUT, O. et al. Doping and performance enhancing drug use in athletes living in sivas, mid-anatolia: a brief report. Journal of sports science & medicine, 4, n. 3, p. 248-252, 2005.
  53. Stanton et al. Testosterone is positively associated with risk taking in the Iowa Gambling Task. Hormones and Behaviour.  59 (2) February 2011, Pages 252-256

Previous